It is a record fifth time Nigeria will draw Argentina at a FIFA World Cup.
Other countries in Group D are Iceland and Croatia.
Nigeria first met Argentina at its first ever FIFA World Cup appearance in 1994, losing a tight game that ended 2-1.
Both countries met again in 1998, 2002 and 2014.
The FIFA World Cup draws, held on Friday, was moderated by Gary Lineker and Maria Komandnaya.
Several football icons participated in the draw, some of which are Pele, Diego Maradona, Gordon Banks, Cafu, Kanu Nwankwo, Austin Okocha, Laurent Blanc, Peter Schmeichel, Carlos Puyol, Ronaldo de Lima, and Ronaldinho.
The month-long mundial hosted by Russia will begin on Thursday, June 14.