Lawmakers on Tuesday voted against a bill seeking to provide special seats for women in the National and State Houses of Assembly.
The bill was defeated in the Senate with 58 votes out of 91.
In the House of Representatives, 208 out of 290 lawmakers voted against it.
The wife of the Vice President, Mrs Dolapo Osinbajo was present on the floor of the House of Representatives for the vote.
In an interview after the vote, Mrs Osinbajo said the defeated bill was not the end of the agitation for women inclusion in Nigerian politics.
The Minister of Women Affairs, Pauline Tallen, described the vote as a show of shame.